A new study reveals how savvy shopping at the grocery store can lower your carbon footprint. As awareness about climate change grows, more consumers want to make a positive impact on the environment. Some people do this by adopting a vegan or vegetarian diet, but that’s not realistic or feasible for everyone. Still, researchers say people can make intelligent food purchases in other ways.
A research team from Purdue University in Indiana identified three ways Americans can lower their carbon footprint. Luckily, they don’t require drastic changes, such as switching to a vegan diet. The findings were published in ACS’ journal Environmental Science & Technology on November 3, 2021.
Transporting food from farms to tables contributes 19-29% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agricultural production accounts for 80-86% of total food system emissions, varying levels depending on the region. Livestock, such as cows and pigs, don’t convert plants to energy very efficiently. Therefore, meat and dairy products contribute higher emissions than fruits, vegetables, and grains.
Because of this, previous studies have investigated changes individuals or households can make to lower their carbon footprint. However, researchers based their claims on an “average American diet” without considering variations. In reality, people eat a widely varied diet depending on preferences, culture, and other factors.
Researchers Explain How Smart Grocery Shopping Can Reduce Your Carbon Footprint
To account for this diversity, the research team wanted to take a more comprehensive approach. Hua Can and colleagues analyzed 2010 data from over 57,000 US households to identify which specific items produced the highest emissions.
Then, they added the GHG emissions from growing and harvesting the various foods. They excluded packaging and transportation emissions due to the unavailability of this data. Next, they compared these emissions calculations to those produced for a healthy, eco-friendly diet.
The team’s analysis found that 71% of homes surveyed could lower their carbon footprint from buying groceries. They suggested three significant ways for consumers to do so:
- Small households of one or two people should purchase fewer bulk food items. Because some of the food will inevitably spoil before it’s eaten, it leads to food waste. Researchers say manufacturers should offer smaller, more affordable package sizes to combat this problem.
- Eliminating foods high in calories with low nutritional value would lower one’s carbon footprint by 29%. Not to mention, cutting out these foods would possibly improve health as well.
- People should buy fewer savory baked goods and ready-made foods. While these foods produce relatively low carbon emissions, the volume of purchased items adds up to significant emissions.
In conclusion, the researchers say adopting these grocery shopping strategies can help people reduce their carbon footprint.
How Eating Less Meat Reduces Your Carbon Footprint
While the above methods lower food production emissions, researchers have found that eliminating or reducing meat consumption makes significant differences. For example, a study published in Nature Food found that animal-based foods produce twice the emissions of plant-based foods.
The researchers from the University of Illinois discovered that animal agriculture and livestock feed accounts for 57% of GHG emissions from food production. Meanwhile, the cultivation of plant-based foods accounts for only 29% of emissions. To put this in perspective, 1kg of wheat produces only 2.5kg of greenhouse gasses. 1kg of beef, on the other hand, results in a staggering 70kg of emissions.
Much of the emissions come from the land required for grazing animals and feed production. The paper found that the majority of the world’s arable land feeds livestock instead of people. Not to mention, livestock (especially cows) produce large amounts of the potent greenhouse gas methane.
A separate UK study of 2,041 vegans, 15,751 vegetarians, 8,123 fish-eaters, and 29,589 meat-eaters found similar results. Peter Scarborough and his colleagues at Oxford University calculated the greenhouse gas emissions of each diet. Not surprisingly, vegans and vegetarians had the lowest carbon footprint – 6.4 and 8.4 pounds of CO2 per day, respectively.
Heavy meat-eaters, or those who ate more than 3.5 ounces per day, produced 15.8 pounds of carbon dioxide. However, the average British person eats about twice that much meat, so they’ll have a larger carbon footprint. Researchers say that these amounts would likely increase in the US as the average American eats 12 ounces of meat per day.
In summary, they say that going vegetarian or vegan can lower your carbon footprint by up to 60%.