Acute Stress Disorder
People who experience an event that puts them in fear for their life may develop one of two conditions: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder (ASD).
In contrast to PTSD, the symptoms of acute stress disorder are generally limited to one month. PTSD symptoms may persist for many years. Comparing the two conditions, according to the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, “ASD is more likely to involve feelings such as not knowing where you are, [or] feeling as if you are outside of your body.”
Acute stress disorder occurs because of a strong psychological reaction to a personally traumatic or terrifying event. Importantly, this event induces a strong emotional response within the individual. Approximately 6 to 33 percent of people who experience a traumatic event develop an acute stress reaction.
Per the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, individuals diagnosed with ASD are “very likely to get PTSD.” Research shows that 8 out of every 10 people diagnosed with ASD have developed PTSD within six months.
Facts About Trauma
Here are some sobering statistics, courtesy of the National Trauma Institute:
- Trauma is the #1 leading cause of death for people between ages 1 to 46.
- It is the leading cause of total years of potential life lost before age 75.
- Trauma costs the healthcare system and industry more than $671 billion, which is more than heart disease and diabetes combined.
- Despite the above statistics, just .02 percent of the National Institute of Health (NIH) budget is allocated to trauma-related research.
“Trauma is personal. It does not disappear if it is not validated. When someone enters the pain and hears the screams, healing can begin.” – Danielle Bernock
“PTSD is not about what is wrong with someone. PTSD is about what happened to someone.” – PTSD Support & Global Awareness
According to Healthline, the following individuals are at an increased risk of developing ASD:
- People who have experienced, witnessed, or been confronted with a traumatic event in the past.
- Those with a history of ASD or PTSD.
- Individuals with a history of mental disorders.
- People with a history of dissociative symptoms during traumatic events. (Dissociation is the feeling of being “separated” from oneself.)
Symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder
The American Psychological Association (APA) separates the symptoms of ASD into two categories. Category 1 is comprised of the following five symptoms. A minimum of three are required for diagnosis:
- Feelings of emotional numbness.
- Feelings of being in a daze or dream-like state.
- Experiencing a loss of personal identity and feelings.
- Feeling separated from reality.
- Loss of memory about one or more aspects of the traumatic event.
Category 2 is comprised of the following three symptoms, one of which is required for an ASD diagnosis:
- Avoidance: a desire to avoid remembering the event.
- Hypervigilance: difficulty sleeping, irritability, being easily startled.
- Flashbacks: vivid remembrances of the event that produce highly distressing symptoms.
5 Leading Causes of Acute Stress Disorder
Per the Department of Veterans Affairs, these five groups exhibited symptoms of ASD: