What is Seasonal Depression?
Seasonal affective disorder, or seasonal depression, is a form of depression that typically affects people in the colder winter months. People with seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, experience many of the same symptoms as those with other types of depression; however, their symptoms seem to improve closer to spring. Some people do experience seasonal affective disorder in the summertime, but it’s far less common than wintertime SAD.
While a lot of people might think of SAD as just, well, sadness, this is far from the truth. Seasonal depression can become debilitating and affect every aspect of life if not treated properly. According to the American Psychiatric Association, around 4-6 percent of adults in the U.S. experience SAD. Their symptoms usually last around 40% of the year. Women tend to suffer from this condition more than men.
What Causes Seasonal Depression?
Like other forms of depression, seasonal depression has been linked to a chemical imbalance in the brain associated with less sunlight and fewer daylight hours. When winter comes around, our circadian rhythm is thrown off due to lack of sunlight, and this can disrupt our entire schedules. SAD is most commonly observed in those who live farther from the equator where it’s darker and colder in the winter. The onset of seasonal affective disorder is normally between the years of 18 and 30.
To be diagnosed with SAD, people must meet the criteria for major depression occurring during specific seasons for at least 2 years. However, to meet the criteria for SAD, the patient must have more frequent seasonal depression than non-seasonal depression, according to the National Institute of Mental Health.
Below, we’ll go over some common signs and symptoms of seasonal depression, as well as how it can be treated.
9 Signs You Have Seasonal Depression
Persistent feelings of sadness and depression
Like regular depression, people with seasonal affective disorder experience frequent feelings of sadness and depression due to a dramatic decrease in sunlight. People with a family history of other types of depression are more likely to develop SAD, as well as those already diagnosed with depression or bipolar disorder.
Loss of interest in activities you once enjoyed
During the winter months, people with SAD will often withdraw from social activities and “hibernate” due to colder temperatures and dreary weather. They will show far less interest in things they once found enjoyable. Some even isolate themselves from family and friends. If this sounds like you only during the winter months, you might have seasonal depression.
Appetite increases, as well as cravings for carbohydrates
This symptom also mimics regular depression, except that people with SAD tend to get hungrier only during the winter months. In fact, as much as 65% of people with SAD report feeling an increase in appetite when it gets colder outside. This is believed to occur due to a drop in serotonin levels, which help to balance moods and control hunger.
Many people with SAD also experience intense cravings for carbohydrates, which help boost serotonin levels in the brain. Carbohydrates also cause levels of an amino acid called tryptophan to increase in the brain, which help induce feelings of calmness and contentedness. Eating too many carbs (especially simple carbs such as bread and pasta), can lead to weight gain if the calories consumed aren’t burned off. Unfortunately, around 75% of people with SAD gain weight due to an increase in appetite.
People with seasonal depression tend to sleep more than people without this disorder. In fact, in one survey of people with SAD, 80% of patients reported increased sleep in the winter. Another study of people with SAD found that patients at a clinic averaged nearly 10 hours of sleep in the winter.
Lack of energy, even with more sleep
Despite the increased sleep, people with SAD often feel lacking in energy because sleeping longer doesn’t necessarily equate to sleeping better. Many people with seasonal depression have insomnia and other sleep problems because of an imbalance in chemicals such as melatonin, serotonin, and dopamine. Scientists have found that people with SAD overproduce melatonin, which helps regulate sleep. Additionally, they don’t produce enough serotonin, which helps to regulate moods.
Restless, but fatigued
As we said before, those with seasonal depression may suffer from restless sleep, which leaves them feeling fatigued during the day. However, patients may also feel restless during daytime hours, especially if they have co-occurring anxiety.
Feelings of worthlessness and shame
Unfortunately, this symptoms is one of the most common among depression sufferers. If this feeling is exacerbated during winter months, you might have seasonal depression.
Trouble focusing or making decisions
Just like major or mild to moderate depression, seasonal affective disorder can impair cognitive functions. In fact, a 2007 study in the American Journal of Psychiatry found that one participant with SAD reported that she had trouble remembering names and appointments and became easily distracted.
Frequent thoughts of death or suicide
This is another unfortunate, sometimes tragic, symptom of depression. If you are experiencing thoughts of death or suicide, please seek professional help or call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-TALK (8255) for immediate assistance.